# Chapter 2B. Regulatory Signs

### Section 2B.01 Application of Regulatory Signs

Standard:

Regulatory signs shall be used to inform road users of selected
traffic laws or regulations and indicate the applicability of the
legal requirements.

Regulatory signs shall be installed at or near where the regulations apply. The signs shall clearly indicate the requirements imposed by the regulations and shall be designed and installed to provide adequate visibility and legibility in order to obtain compliance.

Regulatory signs shall be retroreflective or illuminated to show the same shape and similar color by both day and night, unless specifically stated otherwise in the text discussion of a particular sign or group of signs (see Section 2A.08).

The requirements for sign illumination shall not be considered to be satisfied by street, highway, or strobe lighting.

### Section 2B.02 Design of Regulatory Signs

Support:

Most regulatory signs are rectangular, with the longer dimension
vertical. The shapes and colors of regulatory signs are listed in
Tables 2A-3
and 2A-4, respectively.
Exceptions are specifically noted in the following Sections.

The use of educational plaques to supplement symbol signs is described in Section 2A.13.

Guidance:

Changeable message signs displaying a regulatory message incorporating
a prohibitory message that includes a red circle and slash on a
static sign should display a red symbol that approximates the same
red circle and slash as closely as possible.

### Section 2B.03 Size of Regulatory Signs

Standard:

The sizes for regulatory signs shall be as shown in Table 2B-1.

Guidance:

The Freeway and Expressway sizes should be used for higher-speed
applications to provide larger signs for increased visibility and
recognition.

Option:

The Minimum size may be used on low-speed roadways where the reduced
legend size would be adequate for the regulation or where physical
conditions preclude the use of the other sizes.

The Oversized size may be used for those special applications where speed, volume, or other factors result in conditions where increased emphasis, improved recognition, or increased legibility would be desirable.

Signs larger than those shown in Table 2B-1 may be used (see Section 2A.12).

Sign | MUTCD Code | Section | Conventional Road | Expressway | Freeway | Minimum | Oversized |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Stop | R1-1 | 2B.04 |
750 x 750 (30 x 30) |
900
x 900 (36 x 36) |
— | 600
x 600 (24 x 24) |
1200
x 1200 (48 x 48) |

Yield | R1-2 | 2B.08 | 900
x 900 x 900 (36 x 36 x 36) |
1200
x 1200 x 1200 (48 x 48 x 48) |
1500
x 1500 x 1500 (60 x 60 x 60) |
750
x 750 x 750 (30 x 30 x 30) |
— |

To Oncoming Traffic | R1-2a | — | 600
x 300 (24 x 12) |
— | — | — | — |

4-Way | R1-3 | 2B.04 |
300 x 150 (12 x 6) |
— | — | — | — |

All Way | R1-4 | 2B.04 | 450
x 15 (18 x 6) |
— | — | — | — |

Yield Here to Peds | R1-5 | 2B.11 | 450
x 450 (18 x 18) |
— | — | — | — |

Yield Here to Pedestrians | R1-5a | 2B.11 | 450
x 600 (18 x 24) |
— | — | — | — |

In-Street Ped Crossing | R1-6,R1-6a | 2B.12 | 300
x 900 (12 x 36) |
— | — | — | — |

Speed Limit (English) | R2-1 | 2B.13 |
600 x 750 (24 x 30) |
900 x 1200 (36 x 48) |
1200
x 1500 (48 x 60) |
— | — |

Speed Limit (Metric) | R2-1 | 2B.13 | 600
x 900 (24 x 36) |
900
x 1350 (36 x 54) |
1200
x 1650 (48 x 66) |
— | — |

Truck Speed Limit (English) | R2-2 | 2B.14 | 600
x 600 (24 x 24) |
900
x 900 (36 x 36) |
1200
x 1200 (48 x 48) |
— | — |

Truck Speed Limit (Metric) | R2-2 | 2B.14 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
900 x 1050 (36 x 42) |
1200
x 1350 (48 x 54) |
— | — |

Night Speed Limit (English) | R2-3 | 2B.15 | 600
x 600 (24 x 24) |
900
x 900 (36 x 36) |
1200
x 1200 (48 x 48) |
— | — |

Night Speed Limit (Metric) | R2-3 | 2B.15 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
900
x 1050 (36 x 42) |
1200
x 1350 (48 x 54) |
— | — |

Minimum Speed Limit (English) | R2-4 | 2B.16 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
900
x 1200 (36 x 48) |
1200
x 1500 (48 x 60) |
— | — |

Minimum Speed Limit (Metric) | R2-4 | 2B.16 | 600
x 900 (24 x 36) |
900
x 1350 (36 x 54) |
1200
x 1650 (48 x 66) |
— | — |

Combined Speed Limit (English) | R2-4a | 2B.16 | 600
x 1200 (24 x 48) |
900
x 1800 (36 x 72) |
1200
x 2400 (48 x 96) |
— | — |

Combined Speed Limit (Metric) | R2-4a | 2B.16 |
600 x 1350 (24 x 54) |
900
x 1950 (36 x 78) |
1200
x 2550 (48 x 102) |
— | — |

Fines Higher | R2-6 | 2B.17 | 600
x 600 (24 x 24) |
900
x 900 (36 x 36) |
1200
x 1200 (48 x 48) |
— | — |

Turn Prohibition | R3-1,2,3,4,18 | 2B.19 |
600 x 600 (24 x 24) |
900
x 900 (36 x 36) |
— | — | 1200
x 1200 (48 x 48) |

Mandatory Movement Lane Control | R3-5 series | 2B.21 |
750 x 900 (30 x 36) |
— | — | — | — |

Optional Movement Lane Control | R3-6 | 2B.22 | 750
x 900 (30 x 36) |
— | — | — | — |

Mandatory Movement Lane Control | R3-7 | 2B.21 | 750
x 750 (30 x 30) |
— | — | — | — |

Advance Intersection Lane Control | R3-8,8a,8b | 2B.23 | variable
x 750 (variable x 30) |
— | — | — | — |

Two-Way Left Turn Only (overhead mounted) | R3-9a | 2B.24 | 750
x 900 (30 x 36) |
— | — | — | — |

Two-Way Left Turn Only (ground mounted) | R3-9b | 2B.24 | 600
x 900 (24 x 36) |
— | — | — | 900
x 1200 (36 x 48) |

Reversible Lane Control (symbol) | R3-9d | 2B.25 | 2700
x 1200 (108 x 48) |
— | — | — | — |

Reversible Lane Control (ground mounted) | R3-9f | 2B.25 | 750
x 1050 (30 x 42) |
— | — | — | — |

Advance
Reversible Lane Control Transition Signing |
R3-9g,9h | 2B.25 | 2700
x 900 (108 x 36) |
— | — | — | — |

End Reverse Lane | R3-9i | 2B.25 | 2700
x 1200 (108 x 48) |
— | — | — | — |

Preferential Only
Lane Ahead (ground mounted) |
R3-10 series | 2B.26 | 750
x 1050 (30 x 42) |
900
x 1500 (36 x 60) |
1950
x 2400 (78 x 96) |
— | — |

Preferential Only Lane Operation (ground mounted) | R3-11 series | 2B.26 | 750
x 1050 (30 x 42) |
— | 1950
x 2400 (78 x 96) |
— | — |

Preferential Only
Lane Ends (ground mounted) |
R3-12 series | 2B.26 | 750
x 1050 (30 x 42) |
900
x 1500 (36 x 60) |
1200
x 2100 (48 x 84) 1200 x 2400 (48 x 96) |
— | — |

Preferential Only Lane Ahead (overhead mounted) | R3-13 series | 2B.26 | 1650
x 900 (66 x 36) |
2100
x 1200 (84 x 48) |
3600
x 1950 (144 x 78) 3600 x 2400 (144 x 96) |
— | — |

Preferential Only Lane Operation (overhead mounted) | R3-14 series | 2B.26 | 1800
x 1500 (72 x 60) |
2400
x 1800 (96 x 72) |
3600
x 2650 (144 x 106) 3600 x 3100 (144 x 124) 3600 x 2250 (144 x 90) |
— | — |

HOV 2+ Lane Ends (overhead mounted) | R3-15 series | 2B.26 |
1650 x 900 (66 x 36) |
2100 x 1200 (84 x 48) |
2550 x 1500 (102 x 60) |
— | — |

Do Not Pass | R4-1 | 2B.29 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
900
x 1200 (36 x 48) |
1200
x 1500 (48 x 60) |
450
x 600 (18 x 24) |
— |

Pass With Care | R4-2 | 2B.30 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
900
x 1200 (36 x 48) |
1200
x 1500 (48 x 60) |
450
x 600 (18 x 24) |
— |

Slower Traffic Keep Right | R4-3 | 2B.31 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
900
x 1200 (36 x 48) |
1200
x 1500 (48 x 60) |
— | — |

Trucks Use Right Lane | R4-5 | 2B.32 |
600 x 750 (24 x 30) |
900 x 1200 (36 x 48) |
1200
x 1500 (48 x 60) |
— | — |

Truck
Lane XX Meters (XX Feet) |
R4-6 | 2B.32 |
600 x 750 (24 x 30) |
900
x 1200 (36 x 48) |
1200
x 1500 (48 x 60) |
— | — |

Keep Right | R4-7,7a,7b | 2B.33 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
900
x 1200 (36 x 48) |
1200
x 1500 (48 x 60) |
450
x 600 (18 x 24) |
— |

Keep Left | R4-8 | 2B.33 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
900
x 1200 (36 x 48) |
1200
x 1500 (48 x 60) |
450
x 600 (18 x 24) |
— |

Do Not Enter | R5-1 | 2B.34 | 750
x 750 (30 x 30) |
900 x 900 (36 x 36) |
1200 x 1200 (48 x 48) |
— | — |

Wrong Way | R5-1a | 2B.35 | 900
x 600 (36 x 24) |
900 x 600 (36 x 24) |
1050
x 750 (42 x 30) |
— | — |

No Trucks | R5-2,2a | 2B.36 | 600
x 600 (24 x 24) |
750 x 750 (30 x 30) |
900
x 900 (36 x 36) |
— | 1200
x 1200 (48 x 48) |

No Motor Vehicles | R5-3 | 2B.36 | 600
x 600 (24 x 24) |
— | — | — | — |

Commercial Vehicles Excluded | R5-4 | 2B.36 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
900 x 1200 (36 x 48) |
1200
x 1500 (48 x 60) |
— | — |

Vehicles with Lugs Prohibited | R5-5 | 2B.36 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
900
x 1200 (36 x 48) |
1200
x 1500 (48 x 60) |
— | — |

No Bicycles | R5-6 | 2B.36 | 600
x 600 (24 x 24) |
750
x 750 (30 x 30) |
900
x 900 (36 x 36) |
— | 1200
x 1200 (48 x 48) |

Non-Motorized Traffic Prohibited | R5-7 | 2B.36 | 750
x 600 (30 x 24) |
1050
x 600 (42 x 24) |
1200
x 750 (48 x 30) |
— | — |

Motor-Driven Cycles Prohibited | R5-8 | 2B.36 | 750
x 600 (30 x 24) |
1050
x 600 (42 x 24) |
1200
x 750 (48 x 30) |
— | — |

Pedestrians, Bicycles, Motor-Driven Cycles Prohibited | R5-10a | 2B.36 | 750
x 900 (30 x 36) |
— | — | — | — |

Pedestrians and Bicycles Prohibited | R5-10b | 2B.36 | 750
x 450 (30 x 18) |
— | — | — | — |

Pedestrians Prohibited | R5-10c | 2B.36 | 600
x 300 (24 x 12) |
— | — | — | — |

One Way | R6-1 | 2B.37 | 900
x 300 (36 x 12) |
1350 x 450 (54 x 18) |
1350 x 450 (54 x 18) |
— | — |

One Way | R6-2 | 2B.37 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
900
x 1200 (36 x 48) |
900 x 1200 (36 x 48) |
450 x 600 (18 x 24) |
— |

Divided Highway Crossing | R6-3,3a | 2B.38 | 750
x 600 (30 x 24) |
900
x 750 (36 x 30) |
— | 600
x 450 (24 x 18) |
— |

No Parking | R7-1,2,2a,3, 4,5,6,7,8,107,108 | 2B.39 | 300
x 450 (12 x 18) |
— | — | — | — |

Van Accessible | R7-8a,8b | 2B.40 | 450
x 225 (18 x 9) |
— | — | 300
x 150 (12 x 6) |
— |

No Parking, Bike Lane | R7-9,9a | 9B.09 | 300
x 450 (12 x 18) |
— | — | — | — |

No Parking (with transit logo) | R7-107a | 2B.39 | 300
x 750 (12 x 30) |
— | — | — | — |

No Parking / Restricted Parking (combined sign) | R7-200 | 2B.40 | 600
x 450 (24 x 18) 300 x 750 (12 x 30) |
— | — | — | — |

Tow Away Zone | R7-201,201a | 2B.40 | 300
x 150 (12 x 6) |
— | — | — | — |

This Side of Sign | R7-202 | 2B.39 | 300
x 150 (12 x 6) |
— | — | — | — |

No Parking on Pavement | R8-1 | 2B.39 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
900
x 1200 (36 x 48) |
1200
x 1500 (48 x 60) |
— | — |

No Parking Except on Shoulder | R8-2 | 2B.39 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
900
x 1200 (36 x 48) |
1200
x 1500 (48 x 60) |
— | — |

No Parking | R8-3 | 2B.39 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
900 x 900 (36 x 36) |
1200
x 1200 (48 x 48) |
450
x 600 (18 x 24) |
— |

No Parking (symbol) | R8-3a | 2B.39 | 600
x 600 (24 x 24) |
900 x 900 (36 x 36) |
1200 x 1200 (48 x 48) |
300 x 300 (12 x 12) |
— |

Emergency Parking Only | R8-4 | 2B.42 | 750
x 600 (30 x 24) |
750
x 600 (30 x 24) |
1200
x 900 (48 x 36) |
— | — |

No Stopping on Pavement | R8-5 | 2B.39 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
900
x 1200 (36 x 48) |
1200
x 1500 (48 x 60) |
— | — |

No Stopping Except on Shoulder | R8-6 | 2B.39 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
900
x 1200 (36 x 48) |
1200
x 1500 (48 x 60) |
— | — |

Emergency Stopping Only | R8-7 | 2B.42 | 750
x 600 (30 x 24) |
1200 x 900 (48 x 36) |
— | — | — |

Do Not Stop on Tracks | R8-8 | 2B.42 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
900
x 1200 (36 x 48) |
— | — | — |

Tracks Out of Service | R8-9 | 8B.09 | 600
x 600 (24 x 24) |
900
x 900 (36 x 36) |
— | 450
x 450 (18 x 18) |
— |

Stop Here When Flashing | R8-10 | 8B.10 | 600
x 900 (24 x 36) |
— | — | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
— |

Walk on Left Facing Traffic | R9-1 | 2B.43 | 450
x 600 (18 x 24) |
— | — | — | — |

Cross Only at Crosswalks | R9-2 | 2B.44 | 300
x 450 (12 x 18) |
— | — | — | — |

No Pedestrian Crossing | R9-3 | 2B.44 | 300
x 450 (12 x 18) |
— | — | — | — |

No Pedestrian Crossing (symbol) | R9-3a | 2B.44 | 450
x 450 (18 x 18) |
600
x 600 (24 x 24) |
750
x 750 (30 x 30) |
— | — |

Use Crosswalk | R9-3b | 2B.44 | 450
x 300 (18 x 12) |
— | — | — | — |

No Hitch Hiking | R9-4 | 2B.43 | 450
x 600 (18 x 24) |
— | — | 450
x 450 (18 x 18) |
— |

Hitch Hiking Prohibition (symbol) | R9-4a | 2B.43 | 450
x 450 (18 x 18) |
— | — | — | — |

Bicyclists
(symbol) Use Ped Signal |
R9-5 | 9B.10 | 300
x 450 (12 x 18) |
— | — | — | — |

Bicyclists
(symbol) Yield to Peds |
R9-6 | 9B.10 | 300
x 450 (12 x 18) |
— | — | — | — |

Keep
Left/Right to Pedestrians & Bicyclists (symbols) —
Travel-path Restriction |
R9-7 | 9B.11 | 300
x 450 (12 x 18) |
— | — | — | — |

Pedestrian Crosswalk | R9-8 | 6F.12 | 900
x 450 (36 x 18) |
— | — | — | — |

Sidewalk Closed | R9-9 | 6F.13 | 750
x 450 (30 x 18) |
— | — | — | — |

Sidewalk Closed, Use Other Side | R9-10 | 6F.13 |
1200 x 600 (48 x 24) |
— | — | — | — |

Sidewalk Closed Ahead, Cross Here | R9-11 | 6F.13 |
1200 x 900 (48 x 36) |
— | — | — | — |

Sidewalk Closed, Cross Here | R9-11a | 6F.13 |
1200 x 600 (48 x 24) |
— | — | — | — |

Cross
On Green Light Only |
R10-1 | 2B.45 | 300
x 450 (12 x 18) |
— | — | — | — |

Pedestrian Traffic Signal Signs | R10-2,
2a,3,3a,3b, 3c,3d,4,4a,4b |
2B.45 |
225 x 300 (9 x 12) |
— | — | — | — |

Countdown Pedestrian Sign | R10-3e | 2B.45 | 225
x 375 (9 x 15) |
— | — | — | — |

Left on Green Arrow Only | R10-5 | 2B.45 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
— | — | — | 1200
x 1500 (48 x 60) |

Stop Here on Red | R10-6 | 2B.45 | 600
x 900 (24 x 36) |
— | — | — | — |

Stop Here on Red | R10-6a | 2B.45 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
— | — | — | — |

Do Not Block Intersection | R10-7 | 2B.45 |
600 x 750 (24 x 30) |
— | — | — | — |

Use Lane with Green Arrow | R10-8 | 2B.45 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
900 x 1050 (36 x 42) |
— | — | 1500
x 1800 (60 x 72) |

Left (Right) Turn Signal | R10-10 | 2B.45 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
— | — | — | — |

No Turn on Red | R10-11,11a | 2B.45 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
— | — | — | 1200
x 1200 (48 x 48) |

No Turn on Red | R10-11b | 2B.45 | 600
x 600 (24 x 24) |
— | — | — | 750
x 750 (30 x 30) |

Left
Turn Yield on Green |
R10-12 | 2B.45 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
— | — | — | — |

Emergency Signal | R10-13 | 2B.45 |
900 x 600 (36 x 24) |
— | — | — | — |

Turning Traffic Must Yield To Pedestrians | R10-15 | 2B.45 |
750 x 900 (30 x 36) |
— | — | — | — |

U-Turn Yield to Right Turn | R10-16 | 2B.45 |
750 x 900 (30 x 36) |
— | — | — | — |

Right Turn on Red Arrow After Stop | R10-17a | 2B.45 |
750 x 900 (30 x 36) |
— | — | — | — |

Traffic
Laws Photo Enforced |
R10-18 | 2B.46 |
900 x 450 (36 x 18) |
1200 x 750 (48 x 30) |
1800 x 900 (72 x 36) |
— | — |

Photo Enforced | R10-19 | 2B.46 |
600 x 450 (24 x 18) |
900 x 750 (36 x 30) |
1200 x 900 (48 x 36) |
— | — |

MON—FRI
(and times) (3 lines) |
R10-20a | 2B.45 | 600
x 600 (24 x 24) |
— | — | — | — |

SUNDAY
(and times) (2 lines) |
R10-20a | 2B.45 |
600 x 450 (24 x 18) |
— | — | — | — |

Left
Turn Signal— Yield on Green |
R10-21 | 2B.45 | 750
x 900 (30 x 36) |
— | — | — | — |

Bike Actuation | R10-22 | 9B.12 | 300
x 450 (12 x 18) |
— | — | — | — |

Keep Off Median | R11-1 | 2B.47 |
600 x 750 (24 x 30) |
— | — | — | — |

Road Closed | R11-2 | 2B.48 | 1200
x 750 (48 x 30) |
— | — | — | — |

Road Closed - Local Traffic Only | R11-3,3a,3b,4 | 2B.48 | 1500
x 750 (60 x 30) |
— | — | — | — |

Weight Limit | R12-1,2 | 2B.49 | 600
x 750 (24 x 30) |
900 x 1200 (36 x 48) |
— | — | 900
x 1200 (36 x 48) |

Weight Limit | R12-3 | 2B.49 | 600
x 900 (24 x 36) |
— | — | — | — |

Weight Limit | R12-4 | 2B.49 | 900
x 600 (36 x 24) |
— | — | — | — |

Weight Limit | R12-5 | 2B.49 |
600 x 900 (24 x 36) |
900
x 1200 (36 x 48) |
1200
x 1500 (48 x 60) |
— | — |

Metric Plaque | R12-6 | 2B.49 | 600
x 225 (24 x 9) |
— | — | — | — |

Weigh Station | R13-1 | 2B.50 | 1800
x 1200 (72 x 48) |
2400 x 1650 (96 x 66) |
3000 x 1100 (120 x 84) |
— | — |

Truck Route | R14-1 | 2B.51 | 600
x 450 (24 x 18) |
— | — | — | — |

Hazardous Material | R14-2,3 | 2B.52 |
600 x 600 (24 x 24) |
750 x 750 (30 x 30) |
900 x 900 (36 x 36) |
— | 1050
x 1050 (42 x 42) |

National Network | R14-4,5 | 2B.53 |
600 x 600 (24 x 24) |
750 x 750 (30 x 30) |
900 x 900 (36 x 36) |
— | 1050
x 1050 (42 x 42) |

Railroad Crossbuck | R15-1 | 8B.03 | 1200
x 225 (48 x 9) |
— | — | — | — |

Look | R15-8 | 8B.16 |
900 x 450 (36 x 18) |
— | — | — | — |

- Larger signs may be used when appropriate
- Dimensions are shown in millimeters followed by inches in parentheses and are shown as width x height

### Section 2B.04 STOP Sign (R1-1)

Standard:

When a sign is used to indicate that traffic is always required
to stop, a STOP (R1-1) sign (see Figure 2B-1) shall be used.

The STOP sign shall be an octagon with a white legend and border on a red background. Secondary legends shall not be used on STOP sign faces. If appropriate, a supplemental plaque (R1-3 or R1-4) shall be used to display a secondary legend. Such plaques (see Figure 2B-1) shall have a white legend and border on a red background. If the number of approach legs controlled by STOP signs at an intersection is three or more, the numeral on the supplemental plaque, if used, shall correspond to the actual number of legs controlled by STOP signs.

Figure 2B-1 STOP, YIELD, Speed Limit, FINES HIGHER, and Photo Enforcement Signs

At intersections where all approaches are controlled by STOP signs (see Section 2B.07), a supplemental plaque (R1-3 or R1-4) shall be mounted below each STOP sign.

Option:

The ALL WAY (R1-4) supplemental plaque may be used instead of the
4-WAY (R1-3) supplemental plaque.

Support:

The design and application of Stop Beacons are described in Section
4K.05.

### Section 2B.05 STOP Sign Applications

Guidance:

STOP signs should be used if engineering judgment indicates that
one or more of the following conditions exist:

- Intersection of a less important road with a main road where application of the normal right-of-way rule would not be expected to provide reasonable compliance with the law;
- Street entering a through highway or street;
- Unsignalized intersection in a signalized area; and/or
- High speeds, restricted view, or crash records indicate a need for control by the STOP sign.

Standard:

Because the potential for conflicting commands could create driver
confusion, STOP signs shall not be installed at intersections where
traffic control signals are installed and operating except as noted
in Section 4D.01.

Portable or part-time STOP signs shall not be used except for emergency and temporary traffic control zone purposes.

Guidance:

STOP signs should not be used for speed control.

STOP signs should be installed in a manner that minimizes the numbers of vehicles having to stop. At intersections where a full stop is not necessary at all times, consideration should be given to using less restrictive measures such as YIELD signs (see Section 2B.08).

Once the decision has been made to install two-way stop control, the decision regarding the appropriate street to stop should be based on engineering judgment. In most cases, the street carrying the lowest volume of traffic should be stopped.

A STOP sign should not be installed on the major street unless justified by a traffic engineering study.

Support:

The following are considerations that might influence the decision
regarding the appropriate street upon which to install a STOP sign
where two streets with relatively equal volumes and/or characteristics
intersect:

- Stopping the direction that conflicts the most with established pedestrian crossing activity or school walking routes;
- Stopping the direction that has obscured vision, dips, or bumps that already require drivers to use lower operating speeds;
- Stopping the direction that has the longest distance of uninterrupted flow approaching the intersection; and
- Stopping the direction that has the best sight distance to conflicting traffic.

The use of the STOP sign at highway-railroad grade crossings is described in Section 8B.08. The use of the STOP sign at highway-light rail transit grade crossings is described in Section 10C.04.

### Section 2B.06 STOP Sign Placement

Standard:

The STOP sign shall be installed on the right side of the approach
to which it applies. When the STOP sign is installed at this required
location and the sign visibility is restricted, a Stop Ahead sign
(see Section 2C.29) shall be
installed in advance of the STOP sign.

The STOP sign shall be located as close as practical to the intersection it regulates, while optimizing its visibility to the road user it is intended to regulate.

STOP signs and YIELD signs shall not be mounted on the same post.

Guidance:

Other than a DO NOT ENTER sign, no sign should be mounted back-to-back
with a STOP sign in a manner that obscures the shape of the STOP
sign.

Support:

Section 2A.16 contains additional
information about separate and combined mounting of other signs
with STOP signs.

Guidance:

Stop lines, when used to supplement a STOP sign, should be located
at the point where the road user should stop (see Section
3B.16).

If only one STOP sign is installed on an approach, the STOP sign should not be placed on the far side of the intersection.

Where two roads intersect at an acute angle, the STOP sign should be positioned at an angle, or shielded, so that the legend is out of view of traffic to which it does not apply.

Where there is a marked crosswalk at the intersection, the STOP sign should be installed in advance of the crosswalk line nearest to the approaching traffic.

Option:

At wide-throat intersections or where two or more approach lanes
of traffic exist on the signed approach, observance of the stop
control may be improved by the installation of an additional STOP
sign on the left side of the road and/or the use of a stop line.
At channelized intersections, the additional STOP sign may be effectively
placed on a channelizing island.

Support:

Figure 2A-2 shows examples of
some typical placements of STOP signs.

### Section 2B.07 Multiway Stop Applications

Support:

Multiway stop control can be useful as a safety measure at intersections
if certain traffic conditions exist. Safety concerns associated
with multiway stops include pedestrians, bicyclists, and all road
users expecting other road users to stop. Multiway stop control
is used where the volume of traffic on the intersecting roads is
approximately equal.

The restrictions on the use of STOP signs described in Section 2B.05 also apply to multiway stop applications.

Guidance:

The decision to install multiway stop control should be based on
an engineering study.

The following criteria should be considered in the engineering study for a multiway STOP sign installation:

- Where traffic control signals are justified, the multiway stop is an interim measure that can be installed quickly to control traffic while arrangements are being made for the installation of the traffic control signal.
- A crash problem, as indicated by 5 or more reported crashes in a 12-month period that are susceptible to correction by a multiway stop installation. Such crashes include right- and left-turn collisions as well as right-angle collisions.
- Minimum volumes:
- The vehicular volume entering the intersection from the major street approaches (total of both approaches) averages at least 300 vehicles per hour for any 8 hours of an average day, and
- The combined vehicular, pedestrian, and bicycle volume entering the intersection from the minor street approaches (total of both approaches) averages at least 200 units per hour for the same 8 hours, with an average delay to minor-street vehicular traffic of at least 30 seconds per vehicle during the highest hour, but
- If the 85th-percentile approach speed of the major-street traffic exceeds 65 km/h or exceeds 40 mph, the minimum vehicular volume warrants are 70 percent of the above values.

- Where no single criterion is satisfied, but where Criteria B, C.1, and C.2 are all satisfied to 80 percent of the minimum values. Criterion C.3 is excluded from this condition.

Option:

Other criteria that may be considered in an engineering study include:

- The need to control left-turn conflicts;
- The need to control vehicle/pedestrian conflicts near locations that generate high pedestrian volumes;
- Locations where a road user, after stopping, cannot see conflicting traffic and is not able to reasonably safely negotiate the intersection unless conflicting cross traffic is also required to stop; and
- An intersection of two residential neighborhood collector (through) streets of similar design and operating characteristics where multiway stop control would improve traffic operational characteristics of the intersection.

### Section 2B.08 YIELD Sign (R1-2)

Standard:

The YIELD (R1-2) sign (see Figure 2B-1)
shall be a downward-pointing equilateral triangle with a wide red
border and the legend YIELD in red on a white background.

Support:

The YIELD sign assigns right-of-way to traffic on certain approaches
to an intersection. Vehicles controlled by a YIELD sign need to
slow down or stop when necessary to avoid interfering with conflicting
traffic.

### Section 2B.09 YIELD Sign Applications

Option:

YIELD signs may be used instead of STOP signs if engineering judgment
indicates that one or more of the following conditions exist:

- When the ability to see all potentially conflicting traffic is sufficient to allow a road user traveling at the posted speed, the 85th-percentile speed, or the statutory speed to pass through the intersection or to stop in a reasonably safe manner.
- If controlling a merge-type movement on the entering roadway where acceleration geometry and/or sight distance is not adequate for merging traffic operation.
- The second crossroad of a divided highway, where the median width at the intersection is 9 m (30 ft) or greater. In this case, a STOP sign may be installed at the entrance to the first roadway of a divided highway, and a YIELD sign may be installed at the entrance to the second roadway.
- An intersection where a special problem exists and where engineering judgment indicates the problem to be susceptible to correction by the use of the YIELD sign.

Standard:

A YIELD (R1-2) sign shall be used to assign right-of-way at the
entrance to a roundabout intersection.

### Section 2B.10 YIELD Sign Placement

Standard:

The YIELD sign shall be installed on the right side of the approach
to which it applies. YIELD signs shall be placed on both the left
and right sides of approaches to roundabout intersections with more
than one lane on the signed approach where raised splitter islands
are available on the left side of the approach. When the YIELD sign
is installed at this required location and the sign visibility is
restricted, a Yield Ahead sign (see Section
2C.29) shall be installed in advance of the YIELD sign.

The YIELD sign shall be located as close as practical to the intersection it regulates, while optimizing its visibility to the road user it is intended to regulate.

YIELD signs and STOP signs shall not be mounted on the same post.

Guidance:

Other than a DO NOT ENTER sign, no sign should be mounted back-to-back
with a YIELD sign in a manner that obscures the shape of the YIELD
sign.

Support:

Section 2A.16 contains additional
information about separate and combined mounting of other signs
with YIELD signs.

Guidance:

Yield lines, when used to supplement a YIELD sign, should be located
at a point where the road user should yield (see Section
3B.16).

Where two roads intersect at an acute angle, the YIELD sign should be positioned at an angle, or shielded, so that the legend is out of view of traffic to which it does not apply.

Except at roundabout intersections, where there is a marked crosswalk at the intersection, the YIELD sign should be installed in advance of the crosswalk line nearest to the approaching traffic.

At a roundabout intersection, to prevent circulating vehicles from yielding unnecessarily, the face of the YIELD sign should not be visible from the circulatory roadway.

Option:

At wide-throat intersections or where two or more approach lanes
of traffic exist on the signed approach, observance of the yield
control may be improved by the installation of an additional YIELD
sign on the left side of the road and/or the use of a yield line.
At channelized intersections, the additional YIELD sign may be effectively
placed on a channelizing island.

### Section 2B.11 Yield Here to Pedestrians (R1-5, R1-5a)

Standard:

If yield lines are used in advance of an unsignalized marked midblock
crosswalk, Yield Here To Pedestrians (R1-5, R1-5a) signs (see Figure
2B-2) shall be placed 6.1 to 15 m (20 to 50 ft) in advance of the
nearest crosswalk line (see Section
3B.16 and Figure 3B-15).

Figure 2B-2 Unsignalized Pedestrian Crosswalk Signs

### Section 2B.12 In-Street Pedestrian Crossing Signs (R1-6, R1-6a)

Option:

The In-Street Pedestrian Crossing (R1-6 or R1-6a) sign (see Figure
2B-2) may be used to remind road users of laws regarding right of
way at an unsignalized pedestrian crossing. The legend STATE LAW
may be shown at the top of the sign if applicable. The legends STOP
FOR or YIELD TO may be used in conjunction with the appropriate
symbol.

Guidance:

If an island (See Chapter 3G) is available, the In-Street Pedestrian
Crossing sign, if used, should be placed on the island.

Standard:

The In-Street Pedestrian Crossing sign shall not be used at signalized
locations.

The STOP FOR legend shall only be used in States where the State law specifically requires that a driver must stop for a pedestrian in a crosswalk.

If used, the In-Street Pedestrian Crossing sign shall have a black legend (except for the red STOP or YIELD sign symbols) and border on either a white and/or fluorescent yellow-green background.

If the In-Street Pedestrian Crossing sign is placed in the roadway, the sign support shall comply with the breakaway requirements of the latest edition of AASHTO's "Specification for Structural Supports for Highway Signs, Luminairies, and Traffic Signals" (See Addresses).

Support:

The provisions of Section 2A.18
concerning mounting height are not applicable for the In-Street
Pedestrian Crossing sign.

Option:

The In-Street Pedestrian Crossing sign may be used seasonably to
prevent damage in winter because of plowing operations, and may
be removed at night if the pedestrian activity at night is minimal.

### Section 2B.13 Speed Limit Sign (R2-1)

Standard:

After an engineering study has been made inaccordance with established
traffic engineering practices, the Speed Limit (R2-1) sign (see
Figure 2B-1) shall display the limit established by law, ordinance,
regulation, or as adopted by the authorized agency. The speed limits
shown shall be in multiples of 10 km/h or 5 mph.

At least once every 5 years, States and local agencies should reevaluate non-statutory speed limits on segments of their roadways that have undergone a significant change in roadway characteristics or surrounding land use since the last review.

No more than three speed limits should be displayed on any one Speed Limit sign or assembly.

When a speed limit is to be posted, it should be within 10 km/h or 5 mph of the 85th-percentile speed of free-flowing traffic.

Option:

Other factors that may be considered when establishing speed limits
are the following:

- Road characteristics, shoulder condition, grade, alignment, and sight distance;
- The pace speed;
- Roadside development and environment;
- Parking practices and pedestrian activity; and
- Reported crash experience for at least a 12-month period.

Two types of Speed Limit signs may be used: one to designate passenger car speeds, including any nighttime information or minimum speed limit that might apply; and the other to show any special speed limits for trucks and other vehicles.

A changeable message sign that changes the speed limit for traffic and ambient conditions may be installed provided that the appropriate speed limit is shown at the proper times.

A changeable message sign that displays to approaching drivers the speed at which they are traveling may be installed in conjunction with a Speed Limit sign.

Guidance:

If a changeable message sign displaying approach speeds is installed,
the legend YOUR SPEED XX km/h (MPH) or such similar legend should
be shown. The color of the changeable message legend should be a
yellow legend on a black background or the reverse of these colors.

Support:

Advisory Speed signs are discussed in Sections 2C.36
and 2C.46
and Temporary Traffic Control Zone Speed signs are discussed in
Part 6.

### Section 2B.14 Truck Speed Limit Sign (R2-2)

Standard:

Where a special speed limit applies to trucks or other vehicles,
the legend TRUCKS XX or such similar legend shall be shown on the
same panel as the Speed Limit sign or on a separate R2-2 sign (see
Figure 2B-1) below the standard legend.

### Section 2B.15 Night Speed Limit Sign (R2-3)

Standard:

Where different speed limits are prescribed for day and night, both
limits shall be posted.

Guidance:

A Night Speed Limit (R2-3) sign (see Figure 2B-1) should be reversed
using a white retroreflectorized legend and border on a black background.

Option:

A Night Speed Limit sign may be combined with or installed below
the standard Speed Limit (R2-1) sign.

### Section 2B.16 Minimum Speed Limit Sign (R2-4)

Standard:

A Minimum Speed Limit (R2-4) sign (see Figure 2B-3) shall be displayed
only in combination with a Speed Limit sign.

Option:

Where engineering judgment determines that slow speeds on a highway
might impede the normal and reasonable movement of traffic, the
Minimum Speed Limit sign may be installed below a Speed Limit (R2-1)
sign to indicate the minimum legal speed. If desired, these two
signs may be combined on the R2-4a sign (see Figure 2B-3).

Figure 2B-3 Speed Limit and Turn Prohibition Signs