Chapter 7E. Crossing Supervision
There are two types of school crossing supervision:
- Adult control of pedestrians and vehicles by adult crossing guards or uniformed law enforcement officers; and
- Student control of only pedestrians with student patrols.
Information for the organization, operation, and administration of an adult crossing guard program are given in "Civilian Guards For School Crossings" (available from the Center for Public Safety of Northwestern University, 405 Church Street, Evanston, IL 60204) and "Adult School Crossing Guards" (available from the American Automobile Association, 1000 AAA Drive, Heathrow, FL 32746).
Information for the organization, administration and operation of a student patrol program are given in "Policies and Practices for School Safety Patrols" (available from the American Automobile Association, 1000 AAA Drive, Heathrow, FL 32746).
Adult crossing guards may be used to provide gaps in traffic at school crossings where an engineering study has shown that adequate gaps need to be created (see Section 7A.03), and where authorized by law.
High standards for selection of adult crossing guards are essential.
Adult crossing guards should possess the following qualifications:
- Average intelligence;
- Good physical condition, including sight, hearing, and mobility;
- Mental alertness;
- Neat appearance;
- Good character;
- Dependability; and
- Sense of responsibility for safety of students.
Adult crossing guards should be uniformed so that road users and pedestrians can recognize them and respond to their signals. The uniforms should be distinctively different from those worn by regular law enforcement officers.
Adult crossing guards shall wear high-visibility retroreflective safety apparel labeled as ANSI 107-1999 standard performance for Class 2 as described in Section 6E.02.
Student patrols shall wear high-visibility retroreflective safety apparel labeled as ANSI 107-1999 standard performance for Class 1 as described in Section 6E.02.
Law enforcement officers should wear high-visibility retroreflective material over their uniforms when directing nighttime operations.
Adult crossing guards should not direct traffic in the usual law enforcement regulatory sense. In the control of traffic, they should pick opportune times to create a reasonably safe gap. At these times, they should stand in the roadway to indicate that pedestrians are about to use or are using the crosswalk, and that all vehicular traffic must stop.
Adult crossing guards should use a STOP paddle. The STOP paddle should be the primary hand-signaling device.
The STOP paddle shall be an octagonal shape. The background of the STOP face shall be red with at least 150 mm (6 in) series capital white letters and border. The paddle shall be at least 450 mm (18 in) in size and have the word message STOP on both sides. The paddle shall be retroreflectorized or illuminated when used during hours of darkness.
The STOP paddle may be modified to improve conspicuity by incorporating red or white flashing lights on both sides of the paddle. The red or white flashing lights may be arranged in any of the following patterns:
- Two red or white lights centered vertically above and below the STOP legend;
- Two red or white lights centered horizontally on each side of the STOP legend;
- One red or white light centered below the STOP legend; or
- A series of eight or more small red or white lights no larger than 6 mm (0.25 in) in diameter along the outer edge of the paddle, arranged in an octagonal pattern at the eight corners of the STOP paddle. More than eight lights may be used only if the arrangement of the lights is such that it clearly conveys the octagonal shape of the STOP paddle.
- A series of white lights forming the shapes of the letters in the legend.
If flashing lights are used on the STOP paddle, the flash rate shall be at least 50, but not more than 60, flash periods per minute.
Uniformed law enforcement officers may be used for school crossing supervision.
Students patrols may be used to direct and control pedestrians at crossings near schools where adequate gaps in traffic occur frequently enough so that gaps do not need to be created.
Student patrols may be used to direct and control pedestrians at signalized intersections where turning movements are not a significant problem, and may be used to assist adult crossing guards in the control of pedestrians at crossing locations used by large numbers of pedestrians.
Student patrols should not be responsible for directing vehicular traffic. They should not function as uniformed law enforcement officers or adult crossing guards.
Student patrols should be carefully selected. They should be students from the fifth grade or higher. Leadership and reliability should be determining qualities for patrol membership.
Parental approval should be obtained in writing before a student is used as a member of a student patrol.
Student patrols should use a flagging device to stop pedestrians behind the curb or edge of the roadway, and should allow them to cross only when there is an adequate gap in traffic.
Flagging devices used during periods of twilight or darkness shall be retroreflective or illuminated.
Because they are not authorized to direct vehicular traffic, student patrols shall not use a STOP paddle.